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Technical and privacy enquiries

What is an ACE string?

An ACE string is the result of entering the IDN in your browser’s address bar and it being converted into a format that can be understood by the Domain Name System.


Read more about IDNs here.

What are the syntax requirements for IDNs?

Please see our rules for domain names to check the syntax requirements for IDNs.

What is homoglyph bundling? Does EURid offer it?

Depending on the script and font used, domain names can look similar to one another. In fact, certain characters or glyphs have shapes that appear to be identical or might be hard to differentiate at first glance. Domain names are considered homoglyphs of each other if all the characters in one domain name are homoglyphs of all the characters of the other domain names, in their respective positions.


A Homoglyph Bundle is a set of domain names that are all homoglyphs of each other.


Certain registries have adopted policies to deal with homoglyph bundles. EURid's approach is to ensure that once a domain name from a particular homoglyph bundle is registered, it is not possible to register any other domain name belonging to the same bundle.


This approach aims to reduce the risk of confusion created by domain names that may appear to be similar.


EURid introduced .ею (.eu in the Cyrillic script) on 1 June 2016 and .ευ (.eu in the Greek script) on 14 November 2019. Since the launch of .ею EURid has enforced the basic rule that the second level script must match the top/level script. Since the 16th of October 2019, Cyrillic domain names are no longer affected by the homoglyph bundle procedure. This is explained by the fact that the Cyrillic extension cannot lead to visual confusion when Cyrillic domain names are compared with Greek or Latin domain names.


Please note that EURid has not permitted script mixing since the launch of IDNs, in order to reduce the risk of confusion associated with similar domain names.



What is the WHOIS lookup facility?

The WHOIS lookup facility is a protocol that allows users to access EURid's domain name database. Using the WHOIS lookup facility allows users to query a .eu domain name or its variants in other scripts in order to check its availability. If a domain name is registered, the web-based WHOIS will display the contact details of the domain name holder and other additional information about the registration. For details about the processing of personal data when using the web-based WHOIS, please consult our WHOIS Policy and the Privacy Policy.

How do I change my contact details in the web-based WHOIS?

Please contact your registrar, who will be able to change your contact details on your behalf.

It is essential to ensure that your contact details are correct and up to date. If your contact details are false, contain mistakes, or are outdated, we will not be able to contact you, and this may result in the loss of your domain name. The amount of contact information displayed in the web-based WHOIS system depends on whether the domain name was registered by a company or organisation, or by a private individual.


If you have registered a .eu (or its variants in other scripts) domain name and wish not to display your primary email address on the web-based WHOIS, you may provide your registrar with an alternative functioning email address for display in the web-based WHOIS. You will be able to verify both email addresses on your ‘My .eu’ account.


Please note that the email address used while registering a domain name cannot include the new registered domain name’s extension. The email address extension must be different to the domain name registered.


A domain name with inaccurate registration data is displayed in the web-based WHOIS. How do I notify EURid?

If you have identified registrant data for a specific domain name that you believe is inaccurate, please bring it to our attention by visiting and entering the domain name in question to run a search. On the results page, choose the action ‘Report inaccurate registrant data' for the domain name you have selected under the “Related” section and next to the WHOIS results. Please fill out the electronic form generated by the page and send it back to us.



What are proxy services and why are they used?

Proxy services conceal the contact details of a domain name holder, and are offered for a variety of reasons. One such reason is privacy: some users do not wish for their private data to be displayed on the web-based WHOIS. At EURid, we automatically minimise the amount of personal data available on the web-based WHOIS, limiting visible information to email address and language, which are required in order to be able to contact the domain holder. Additional information is displayed for legal entities holding a domain name.

If you have registered a domain name under .eu (or its variants in other scripts) and wish for your email address not to be visible on the web-based WHOIS, you may provide your registrar with an additional, functioning email address, which will be displayed in the web-based WHOIS instead of the current address. You will be able to verify both email addresses on your ‘My .eu’ account.

If you have any questions about the processing of personal data, please consult our WHOIS Policy and our Privacy Policy or contact us at [email protected].

How is personal data processed by EURid?

The personal data of any data subject that enters into contact with us is treated according to our Privacy Policy. If you would like to know what personal data EURid processes about you, please submit an online data access request (DAR) form. If you are a .eu (or other script variants) domain name holder, please also refer to the WHOIS Policy for details on the processing of personal data when using the web-based WHOIS. As a domain holder, you may also view your personal data via the 'My .eu' webpage.

On our GDPR dedicated page, we have supplied a complete overview of the changes that we have adapted to our procedures and documents in light of the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation on 25 May 2018.

If you have any questions about data processing to which you cannot find answers in our documentation, please contact our Privacy Office via [email protected].

I have received an email from EURid requesting to verify my registration data. What should I do?

To combat fraudulent domain name use, EURid carries out checks on registration data regularly, and, ultimately, invites you to provide evidence of their correctness through your My .eu account.


If you have received an email from EURid ([email protected]) requesting that you validate your identity and/or contact details, please follow these steps:


  • Please note the deadline specified in the request, it can vary from three (3), to seven (7), to fourteen (14) calendar days. It is important that you submit the requested information within the designated timeframe.
  • Go to 'My .eu' account. Insert your domain name and email address, click on “Request access code”. Insert the code sent to your email address and click on “Login”. Please note the access code sent to your email address can be used only once and expires after 2 hours of receipt.
  • Once logged in to your 'My .eu' account, you will find various methods available for you to verify your registration data. Please follow the instructions on the My .eu page.
  • If, during the verification process, you are asked to upload documentary evidence, or you have selected this method to validate your data, click on ‘Submit’ after uploading your documents.
  • If the data provided through your chosen verification method match the registration data, the verification procedure may be concluded and your domain name activated, if necessary. Please note that EURid may need to perform a manual check in order to verify your data, therefore your domain name may not be immediately activated after submitting your evidence.
  • If you are specifically asked to confirm that you have registered your domain name(s) in good faith, please confirm by ticking the ‘I confirm…’ box on the My .eu platform.

When we begin a verification check of your data, your domain name status may display one of the following statuses:

  • ‘ServerHold’ means that your domain is temporarily inactive (i.e. any website and/or email linked to it do not function) because it is under internal investigation;
  • ‘Withdrawn’ means that the domain name is no longer registered, pending the outcome of an internal investigation. 

Should you wish to receive further information about your case, please contact us by replying to the email you received from email address: [email protected].